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Medical Terms

Below is a list of 50 common medical terms with short definitions. These terms cover various aspects of medicine, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, diagnostics, and treatment.

  1. Anemia: A condition characterized by a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin, resulting in reduced oxygen transport to tissues.
  2. Arthritis: Inflammation of one or more joints, causing pain, swelling, and stiffness.
  3. Biopsy: The removal and examination of a small sample of tissue from the body to diagnose or monitor a medical condition.
  4. Cardiovascular: Relating to the heart and blood vessels.
  5. Diabetes: A chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels, either due to inadequate insulin production or ineffective use of insulin by the body.
  6. Dyspnea: Difficulty or labored breathing, often associated with conditions affecting the respiratory system or heart.
  7. Endoscopy: A medical procedure involving the insertion of a flexible tube with a camera into the body to examine internal organs or tissues.
  8. Fracture: A broken bone, typically resulting from trauma or injury.
  9. Gastroenteritis: Inflammation of the stomach and intestines, commonly referred to as stomach flu.
  10. Hypertension: High blood pressure, a condition in which the force of blood against the artery walls is consistently too high.
  11. Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, in the body, leading to illness.
  12. Jaundice: A yellowing of the skin and eyes due to high levels of bilirubin in the bloodstream, often indicating liver dysfunction.
  13. Kidney: One of the pair of organs responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and regulating fluid balance in the body.
  14. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, characterized by the abnormal growth of lymphocytes (white blood cells).
  15. Migraine: A neurological condition characterized by recurrent headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
  16. Nausea: A sensation of discomfort in the stomach with an inclination to vomit, often associated with motion sickness, pregnancy, or illness.
  17. Obesity: A medical condition characterized by excessive body fat accumulation, increasing the risk of various health problems.
  18. Pneumonia: Inflammation of the air sacs in one or both lungs, typically caused by infection, resulting in cough, fever, and difficulty breathing.
  19. Quarantine: Isolation or restriction of movement imposed on individuals or communities to prevent the spread of contagious diseases.
  20. Radiation: Energy emitted in the form of electromagnetic waves or particles, commonly used in medical imaging and cancer treatment.
  21. Surgery: The branch of medicine that involves operative procedures to treat injuries, diseases, or deformities.
  22. Tumor: An abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
  23. Ultrasound: A medical imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of internal body structures, such as organs and tissues.
  24. Vaccine: A biological preparation that stimulates the immune system to produce immunity to a specific infectious disease, typically containing weakened or inactivated pathogens.
  25. X-ray: A type of electromagnetic radiation used in medical imaging to produce images of the inside of the body, especially bones and internal organs.
  26. Yeast Infection: A common fungal infection caused by overgrowth of yeast, typically Candida albicans, often affecting the skin, mouth, or genital area.
  27. Zoonosis: An infectious disease that can be transmitted between animals and humans, such as rabies or Lyme disease.
  28. Aneurysm: A bulge or weakening of a blood vessel wall, which can rupture and cause internal bleeding or stroke.
  29. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchial tubes, causing coughing, mucus production, and difficulty breathing.
  30. Cancer: A group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells, often forming tumors and invading nearby tissues.
  31. Dermatitis: Inflammation of the skin, resulting in redness, itching, and sometimes blistering or scaling.
  32. Embolism: Blockage of a blood vessel by a clot or other foreign material, potentially leading to tissue damage or organ failure.
  33. Fever: A temporary increase in body temperature, usually in response to infection or inflammation.
  34. Glaucoma: A group of eye conditions characterized by damage to the optic nerve, often associated with increased pressure within the eye.
  35. Hematology: The branch of medicine concerned with the study of blood and blood-forming tissues.
  36. Immunization: The process of making an individual immune to a specific infectious disease through vaccination or previous exposure.
  37. Jaundice: A yellowing of the skin and eyes due to elevated levels of bilirubin in the bloodstream, often indicative of liver dysfunction.
  38. Knee: The joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia), susceptible to various injuries and conditions such as osteoarthritis.
  39. Laceration: A deep cut or tear in the skin or flesh, often caused by sharp objects or trauma.
  40. Melanoma: A type of skin cancer that develops from melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells of the skin.
  41. Narcotic: A drug that relieves pain and induces sleep or stupor, often used for medical purposes but can be addictive if misused.
  42. Orthopedics: The branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries.
  43. Pregnancy: The condition of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the uterus, typically lasting around nine months in humans.
  44. Quadriceps: A group of four muscles located at the front of the thigh, important for knee extension and leg stability.
  45. Respiratory: Relating to the organs involved in breathing, including the nose, throat, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm.
  46. Sepsis: A life-threatening condition caused by the body’s response to infection, leading to widespread inflammation and organ dysfunction.
  47. Thyroid: A butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck, responsible for producing hormones that regulate metabolism and other bodily functions.
  48. Urology: The branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the urinary tract and male reproductive system.
  49. Vertigo: A sensation of dizziness or spinning, often caused by problems with the inner ear or vestibular system.
  50. Wound: An injury to the body’s soft tissues, such as cuts, abrasions, or puncture wounds, which may require medical treatment or first aid.

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