GRAMMAR – Tag Questions

Tag questions are a common feature in English that serve to confirm or clarify information, express uncertainty, or seek agreement. They consist of a statement followed by a short question tag.

Tag Questions

You know your tag questions well, don't you?

1 / 40

So you bought a car, __________?

2 / 40

You would never tell him,  __________?

3 / 40

When you arrived, she had already left,  __________?

4 / 40

Your little Angie can't walk yet,  __________?

5 / 40

Henry and Juliet have just arrived, __________?

6 / 40

Tom couldn't find the place, __________?

7 / 40

She arrived too late, __________?

8 / 40

You like chocolate, __________?

9 / 40

He was at the concert, __________?

10 / 40

It isn't too cold today, __________?

11 / 40

You are a student, __________?

12 / 40

You wouldn't like to invite my Dad, __________?

13 / 40

So you bought a car, __________?

14 / 40

I'm right, __________?

15 / 40

We must lock the doors, __________?

16 / 40

They will wash the car, __________?

17 / 40

Nobody called, __________?

18 / 40

We won't be late, __________?

19 / 40

Let's go for a walk, __________?

20 / 40

You go to school, __________?

21 / 40

He's still sleeping, __________?

22 / 40

You've spoken with her, __________?

23 / 40

It was cold yesterday, __________?

24 / 40

The neighbors moved away, __________?

25 / 40

Peter and Nancy have been arguing, __________?

26 / 40

Your grandmother was Irish, __________?

27 / 40

Thomas came over last night, __________?

28 / 40

You lived in France, __________?

29 / 40

You were living in France, __________?

30 / 40

He has seen that movie, __________?

31 / 40

He called you, __________?

32 / 40

We have another carton of milk, __________?

33 / 40

Stefan is German, __________?

34 / 40

The neighbors like us, __________?

35 / 40

Peter and Nancy are coming to the party, __________?

36 / 40

Fiona is Irish, __________?

37 / 40

Thomas is coming over tonight, __________?

38 / 40

You live in France, __________?

39 / 40

You're living in France, __________?

40 / 40

Mary is going to see that movie, __________?

Your score is

The average score is 0%


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CONFUSING WORDS – Beside vs. Besides

“Beside” is a preposition that indicates proximity or location next to something else.
It often implies being at the side of or in close proximity to something.

She sat beside her friend during the movie.
The cat slept beside the fireplace.

“Besides” is an adverb or a preposition that has several meanings:
In addition to or apart from.
Moreover or furthermore.
It is used to add extra information or to introduce additional points.

Besides English, she speaks French fluently.
I don’t have time to go out tonight; besides, I have work to finish.
Besides being a talented musician, he’s also a skilled painter.

Remember, “besides” can also function as a preposition, similar to “beside,” but its primary use is as an adverb introducing additional information or points.

To differentiate between the two:
Use “beside” when referring to physical proximity or location.
Use “besides” when adding information or expressing an additional point.

Beside vs. Besides

1 / 12

__________ the traffic noise, the apartment is peaceful and quiet.

2 / 12

Please sit __________ me at the dinner table.

3 / 12

__________ his love for adventure, he enjoys quiet evenings at home.

4 / 12

We found a cozy café __________ the movie theater.

5 / 12

__________ mathematics, she excels in physics as well.

6 / 12

The cat sleeps __________ the fireplace during the winter.

7 / 12

__________ his busy schedule, he finds time to volunteer at the local shelter.

8 / 12

Sarah's house is located __________ the park.

9 / 12

__________ his academic achievements, he is also a talented musician.

10 / 12

I always sit __________  my best friend in class.

11 / 12

__________ studying English, she is also learning French.

12 / 12

The book is __________ the lamp on the table.

Your score is

The average score is 0%


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GRAMMAR – Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Countable and uncountable nouns are two categories used to classify nouns based on whether they can be counted or not.

Countable Nouns:
Countable nouns refer to objects or entities that can be counted as discrete units.
They have both singular and plural forms.
They can be preceded by numbers (one, two, three, etc.) and quantifying words (a, an, many, few, etc.).

Singular: cat, book, table, car
Plural: cats, books, tables, cars

Countable nouns can be counted individually or as a group.

Uncountable Nouns (Mass Nouns):
Uncountable nouns refer to substances, concepts, or qualities that cannot be counted as individual units.
They usually don’t have a plural form or can’t be pluralized without changing their meaning.
They cannot be preceded by numbers or quantifying words like “a” or “an.”

water, rice, information, furniture

Uncountable nouns are often measured or quantified by using units of measurement, containers, or other quantifying expressions:
a bottle of water, a cup of rice, a piece of information

Here’s a comparison to illustrate the difference:

Abstract Ideas: love, freedom, education, luck, help, music, beauty
Made of small parts: rice, sugar, sand, flour, dirt, dust, traffic, grass, spaghetti
Some food: bread, fish, cheese, chocolate, ham, bacon, food, meat
Liquids and Gases: water, coffee, milk, oil, rain, soup, air, smoke, fog, blood
Materials: wood, glass, paper, gold, silver, ice, steel, cotton, wool

Countable: “I have three cats.”
Here, “cats” is countable because you can count each individual cat.

Uncountable: “I need some advice.”
“Advice” is uncountable because you can’t count it as individual pieces of advice; it’s a concept rather than a physical object.

Remember, some nouns can be both countable and uncountable depending on context. For example, “fruit” is usually uncountable (as in “I like fruit”), but it can be countable when referring to specific types of fruit (as in “I bought three fruits: an apple, a banana, and an orange”).

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GRAMMAR – Both – Either – Neither

Both … and
Two things together
Dad is going to the cinema. Mom is going to the cinema.
Both dad and mom are going to the cinema.
They brought potatoes. They brought meat.
They brought both potatoes and meat.
There are two shirts. You can have them both.

Either … or
One of two things
Maybe dad will go to the cinema. Maybe mom will go to the cinema.
Either dad or mom will to the cinema.
I did not buy bread. I did not buy butter.
I did not buy either bread or butter.
There are two shirts. You can have either one.

Neither … nor
None of two things
Dad is not going to the cinema. Mom is not going to the cinema.
Neither dad nor mom are going to the cinema.
I did not buy bread. I did not buy butter.
I bought neither bread nor butter.
There are two small shirts. Neither one will fit you.

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Phrasal verbs are special phrases in English made up of a verb (like “take”) and another word (like “off” or “out”). Together, they create a new meaning that might not be obvious from the individual words. They’re really common in English and are used in all kinds of conversations. Learning phrasal verbs helps you understand and speak English better.

Take off:
To depart or become airborne, especially of an aircraft.
To remove something, such as clothing or accessories.
To stop working for a period of time.

The plane will take off in ten minutes.
He took off his t-shirt when he arrived at the beach.
He decided to take the day off and relax at home.

Take in:
To comprehend or understand.
To reduce the size or width of something, often by sewing or adjusting.

She couldn’t take in all the information at once.
The tailor took in the waist of my pants.

Take out:
To remove something from a place.
To go to a place, typically for entertainment or dining.

Let’s take out the trash before it starts to smell.
I’ll take you out for dinner tonight.

Take on:
To undertake or accept a responsibility or challenge.
To confront or deal with a difficult situation.

The company decided to take on more employees for the busy season.
She’s not afraid to take on challenges.

Take up:
To start or begin to do something, often as a hobby or interest.
To occupy or fill space or time.

I’m thinking of taking up a new hobby, like painting.
The new project is taking up a lot of my time.

Take over:
To assume control or responsibility for something.
To become dominant or prevalent.

The new manager will take over next week.
The rebels attempted to take over the government.

Take back:
To return something to its original location or owner.
To retract or withdraw a statement or action.

I need to take back this shirt; it’s too small.
He wishes he could take back what he said.

Take down:
To remove or dismantle something.
To write or record something, often notes or information.

The police were able to take down the suspect without incident.
Can you take down this message for me?

Take up with:
To begin a relationship or association with someone or a group.
To involve oneself with someone or something, often of a questionable nature.

She decided to take up with her old friends again.
I wouldn’t advise taking up with that crowd.

Take after:
To resemble or inherit traits from a family member, usually a parent or relative.
To imitate or emulate someone’s behavior or actions.

He really takes after his father; they look and act so much alike.
She takes after her mother in terms of artistic talent.

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CONFUSING WORDS – Quit – Quiet – Quite


“Quit” is a verb that means to stop or cease doing something. When someone quits an activity, job, or habit, they discontinue or give up that particular action or commitment. “Quit” can also imply resignation or abandonment of a task or responsibility. It is often used in contexts related to work, sports, studies, or habits. For example, “He decided to quit his job and pursue a new career” or “She quit smoking last year.”

She decided to quit her job and start her own business.
He couldn’t quit eating chocolate even though he knew it wasn’t good for him.
After years of struggling with the habit, he finally decided to quit smoking for good.


“Quiet” is an adjective that describes the absence of noise or disturbance, creating a peaceful or calm environment. It refers to a state of tranquility or minimal sound. Additionally, “quiet” can also be used as a verb, meaning to make something or someone become silent or less noisy. For example, “The library is a quiet place for studying,” or “Please quiet down so we can hear the speaker.”


The baby finally fell asleep, and the house became quiet.
Please keep your voice down and try to be quiet during the movie.
The students were quiet in the classroom.


“Quite” as an adverb that is used to intensify the meaning of an adjective or adverb. It often indicates a degree or extent that is significant or noticeable. “Quite” can suggest a level of completeness, emphasis, or extent beyond what is expected. It can also indicate agreement or confirmation in response to a statement. For example, “She was quite tired after the long day” or “It’s quite hot outside today.”


The hike was quite challenging, but we made it to the top.
She found the movie quite entertaining and watched it twice.
He was quite surprised when he received the award for his work.

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Parts of Speech

Here are 9 parts of speech in English with definitions and examples.


A noun is a word used to identify a person, place, thing, or idea. Nouns are the basic building blocks of sentences and are essential for communication in any language. Examples of nouns include “dog,” “car,” “teacher,” “city,” and “happiness.” Nouns can be singular or plural, and they can also be concrete (tangible objects) or abstract (ideas or concepts). In sentences, nouns often serve as the subject or object, providing clarity and context to the meaning of the sentence.


Book (thing) – “She enjoys reading books in her free time.”

Teacher (person) – “The teacher explained the lesson clearly.”

Love (idea) – “Their love for each other grew stronger over time.”


A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun in a sentence. Pronouns are used to avoid repetition and make sentences less cumbersome. They refer back to a previously mentioned noun or group of nouns and help maintain clarity and flow in writing and conversation. Examples of pronouns include “he,” “she,” “it,” “they,” “we,” and “you.” Pronouns can function as subjects, objects, possessives, or reflexives in sentences.


He (subject pronoun) – “He went to the store to buy groceries.”

They (subject pronoun) – “They are going to the park this afternoon.”

I (subject pronoun); Her (object pronoun) – “I gave the book to her.”


A verb is a word that expresses an action, occurrence, or state of being in a sentence. Verbs are essential components of sentences as they convey the action or existence of the subject. They can describe physical actions (e.g., run, jump, eat), mental actions (e.g., think, believe, remember), states of being (e.g., is, are, was), or changes that occur (e.g., become, grow). Verbs can also indicate tense, showing whether an action is happening in the past, present, or future. In English, verbs are conjugated to match the subject in terms of person, number, and tense.

Run (physical action) – “She runs in the park every morning.”

Think (mental action) – “He thinks before making a decision.”

Is (state of being) – “The cat is sleeping on the windowsill.”


An adjective is a word that describes or modifies a noun or pronoun by providing more information about its qualities, characteristics, or attributes. Adjectives help to make descriptions more vivid and detailed, allowing us to express our thoughts more precisely. They can describe various aspects such as size, color, shape, age, origin, material, or purpose. Adjectives are essential for enriching language and making communication more expressive. Examples of adjectives include “big,” “red,” “round,” “old,” “Italian,” “wooden,” and “useful.”


Big (describing size) – “The elephant is a big animal.”

Red (describing color) – “She wore a red dress to the party.”

Happy (describing emotion) – “They felt happy after winning the game.”


An adverb is a word that modifies or describes a verb, adjective, or another adverb in a sentence. Adverbs often provide information about how, when, where, why, or to what extent something happens. They enhance the meaning of the verb or adjective they modify, adding details such as manner, frequency, time, place, degree, or reason. Adverbs can appear in various positions within a sentence and play a crucial role in providing clarity and specificity in communication. Examples of adverbs include “quickly,” “happily,” “often,” “yesterday,” “here,” and “very.”


Quickly (modifying the verb “ran”) – “She ran quickly to catch the bus.”

Happily (modifying the verb “smiled”) – “He smiled happily when he saw his friends.”

Often (modifying the verb “visit”) – “They often visit their grandparents on weekends.”


A preposition is a word that typically comes before a noun or pronoun and shows the relationship between that noun or pronoun and another word in the sentence. Prepositions usually indicate location, direction, time, or the relationship between objects. They help clarify the spatial or temporal relationship between elements in a sentence, providing important contextual information. Examples of prepositions include “in,” “on,” “at,” “under,” “over,” “beside,” “between,” and “during.”


On (location) – “The book is on the table.”

Between (location) – “She stood between her two friends.”

At (location) – “We will meet at the restaurant.”

Under (location) – “The keys are under the mat.”

During (time) – “She fell asleep during the movie.”


A conjunction is a word that connects words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence. Conjunctions are important for joining elements together to form coherent and complete sentences. They can connect similar ideas (coordinating conjunctions), show a relationship between dependent and independent clauses (subordinating conjunctions), or indicate contrast or alternatives (correlative conjunctions). Conjunctions help create smooth transitions between different parts of a sentence, making the overall meaning clearer and more organized. Examples of conjunctions include “and,” “but,” “or,” “if,” “because,” and “although.”


And (coordinating) – “She likes to read books and watch movies.”

But (coordinating) – “He wanted to go to the park, but it started raining.”

Because (subordinating) – “They stayed indoors because it was raining heavily.”


A determiner is a word that comes before a noun to introduce or clarify it. Determiners help specify which noun is being referred to or provide information about the quantity, possession, or definiteness of the noun. They are used to limit or define the scope of a noun in a sentence. Examples of determiners include articles (such as “the,” “a,” and “an”), demonstratives (such as “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those”), possessives (such as “my,” “your,” “his,” “her,” “its,” “our,” and “their”), and quantifiers (such as “some,” “many,” “few,” “several,” “each,” “every,” “both,” “neither,” and “all”). Determiners are essential for providing context and specificity in sentences.


The (definite article) – “The cat is sleeping on the mat.”

My (possessive determiner) – “My sister loves to read books.”

Some (quantifier) – “She bought some apples at the store.”


An interjection is a word or phrase that expresses emotion, feeling, or sudden reaction in a sentence. Interjections are often used to convey strong emotions such as joy, surprise, anger, pain, or relief. They can stand alone or be inserted into sentences to express the speaker’s immediate reaction or attitude. Interjections are not grammatically connected to other parts of the sentence and are usually followed by an exclamation mark to indicate their emotional intensity. Examples of interjections include “Wow!,” “Ouch!,” “Hey!,” “Oops!,” “Yikes!,” and “Hooray!” Interjections add color and expressiveness to language, allowing speakers to convey their emotions more vividly.


Wow! (surprise or admiration) – “Wow! That magic trick was amazing!”

Ouch! (pain) – “Ouch! I stubbed my toe on the table.”

Yikes! (alarm or concern) – “Yikes! I forgot to turn off the stove!”

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Grammar – Adverbs

An adverb is a word that modifies or describes a verb, adjective, or other adverb. It provides additional information about how, when, where, or to what extent an action or quality is performed. Several different types of adverbs are used in English:

  • Adverbs of manner: Adverbs of manner describe how an action is performed. Examples include “quickly,” “slowly,” “happily,” and “sadly.”
  • Adverbs of frequency: Adverbs of frequency describe how often an action occurs. Examples include “always,” “often,” “sometimes,” and “rarely.”
  • Adverbs of time: Adverbs of time describe when an action occurs. Examples include “yesterday,” “today,” “now,” “soon,” and “later.”
  • Adverbs of place: Adverbs of place describe where an action occurs. Examples include “here,” “there,” “everywhere,” and “nowhere.”
  • Adverbs of degree: Adverbs of degree describe the intensity or extent (how much) of an action or event. Examples include “very,” “extremely,” “quite,” and “somewhat.”
  • Adverbs of affirmation and negation: Adverbs of affirmation indicate agreement or confirmation, such as “certainly,” “indeed,” and “absolutely.” Adverbs of negation indicate negation or denial, such as “not,” “never,” and “no.”
  • Interrogative adverbs: Interrogative adverbs are used to ask questions about time, place, manner, or reason. Examples include “when,” “where,” “how,” and “why.”
  • Relative adverbs: Relative adverbs are used to connect two clauses in a sentence and indicate a relationship between them. Examples include “where,” “when,” and “why.”
  • Conjunctive adverbs: Conjunctive adverbs are used to connect two independent clauses in a sentence. Examples include “however,” “therefore,” and “moreover.”

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“Because” vs. “Because of”

What’s the difference between “because” and “because of”?

In most cases, “because” is followed by a subject and a verb, and “because of” is typically followed by a single word or phrase.

Here are two sentences with similar meanings, but with different structures to help illustrate this difference:

“The concert was canceled because the weather was bad”

“The concert was canceled because of bad weather.”

As you can see, “because” is followed by a subject and a verb which express a complete thought. In the first sentence, that thought is “the weather was bad.” On the other hand, “because of” is followed by a short phrase. In the second sentence, that phrase is “bad weather.”

To summarize:

Because is a conjunction. The structure we use is
because + subject + verb.

He moved to London because his girlfriend lives there.
(his girlfriend lives = subject + verb)

Because of is a preposition. We use the structure
because of + noun or pronoun (you, me, him, etc.).

He moved to New York because of his family.
(family = noun)

He moved to New York because of them.
(them = pronoun)

"Because" vs. "Because of"

Test your knowledge of "Because" vs. "Because of" in this short exercise.

1 / 15

I didn't arrive on time __________ I missed the train.

2 / 15

I couldn't understand him __________ his strange accent.

3 / 15

She passed the test __________ her teacher.

4 / 15

She passed the test __________ she had a good teacher.

5 / 15

We hurried into the house __________ it was raining.

6 / 15

I took my new iPhone back to the store __________ the battery wasn't holding the charge.

7 / 15

My girlfriend lives in Ft. Lauderdale. I moved to Florida __________ her.

8 / 15

Samuel traveled economy-class __________ it was much more affordable.

9 / 15

Maria bought a first-class plane ticket __________ the extra space and comfort.

10 / 15

There's always a crossing guard at the school crossing __________ it's a very busy road.

11 / 15

Danielle prefers small farmers' markets to big supermarkets __________ the quality and freshness of the produce.

12 / 15

__________ they are easy to set up and use, Chromebooks are very popular with students.

13 / 15

Bananas grow well in Brazil __________ the tropical climate.

14 / 15

Schools are closed this month _________ two teachers tested positive for Covid-19.

15 / 15

The football match was canceled ________ the bad weather.

Your score is

The average score is 84%


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GRAMMAR – Prepositions

Types of Prepositions

The different types of prepositions are used to provide us with different information with regard to time (prepositions of time), place (prepositions of place), and direction (prepositions of movement). Besides these three, there are others: prepositions of manner and prepositions of cause and reason.

Time: We’ve been working since yesterday.
Direction: Go to the end of the street and you’ll see it.
Location: We saw a movie at the cinema.
Space: The dog slept under the table.
Manner: She laughed like a hyena.
Reason: They divorced for many reasons.

The same preposition, however, can be used for the different divisions into time, place, and direction. Look at this example using at.
Time: I shall meet you at 2 o’clock.
Direction: The woman pointed at the man who stole her purse.
Location: We’ll wait for you at the entrance of the mall.


1 / 17

The Canaries are a group of islands _______ the coast of Africa.

2 / 17

There is a wooden fence _______ the garden, which looks quite nice.

3 / 17

The book was written _______ John Grisham. He's a famous writer.

4 / 17

The students in the last row never pay attention _______ what the teacher says.

5 / 17

The wind was coming _______ all directions, so it was impossible to continue with the event.

6 / 17

After an hour, the firefighters had the incident _______ control.

7 / 17

My sister owns a beautiful house ___ the sea.

8 / 17

We walked _______ the room and saw documents and folders scattered over the floor.

9 / 17

 _______ first, I thought it was an earthquake, but then I saw the damaged bus.

10 / 17

The man fell _______ a coma _______ which he never recovered.

11 / 17

The older boys always make fun _______ me.

12 / 17

A large part _______ the Netherlands lies _______ sea level.

13 / 17

My mom suffers _______ from migraine.

14 / 17

The painter's works are _______ display _______ the National Gallery.

15 / 17

I like to read books _______ photography.

16 / 17

I am familiar _______ the rules, so you don't have to explain them to me.

17 / 17

That car belongs _______ a friend _______ mine.

Your score is

The average score is 67%


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