Here are some common prepositional phrases, also known as Collocations with prepositions.

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VOCABULARY – Common Abbreviations

An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase.

Here are some of the more common ones:

Mr. – Mister
Mrs. – Missus
Ms. – Miss [mizz]
jr. – Junior
Dr. – Doctor
Blvd. – Boulevard
Rd. – Road
Dr. – Drive
St. – Street
Ave. – Avenue
Ln. – Lane
mph – miles per hour
Corp. – Corporation
Inc. – Incorporated
Ltd. – Limited

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GRAMMAR – Subjunctive

The subjunctive mood usually uses the base form of the verb in the ‘that clause’, but the verb to be is a special case. The subjunctive is used after certain expressions that contain an order, a request, a hypothetical, or a wish.

It is recommended that she write a speech for the graduation.
It is necessary that the dean prepare a short speech for the ceremony.
We asked that he read the instructions carefully.
It is important that she agree to these terms in the contract.
Jane insisted that the student seek the help of a tutor.
We asked that it be done yesterday.
It might be desirable that you not publish the story.
I support the recommendation that they not be punished.

What about the Verb to Be in the Subjunctive Mood?
The subjunctive mood has one other use: to express wishes and hypothetical situations. Typically, this type of statement includes the word if.
If I were a cat, I would lie in the sun all day. (hypothetical because I’m not a cat)
If I were you, I’d be careful. (hypothetical because I’m not you)
If he were rich, he’d buy a football team. (hypothetical because he’s not rich)
Sally wishes she were taller. (a wish)

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GRAMMAR – Past forms of Irregular Verbs

The difference between a regular and an irregular verb is the formation of the simple past and past participle. Regular verbs are consistent—the simple past ends in ed as does the past participle.

BUT, the simple past and past participle of irregular verbs can end in a variety of ways, with no consistent pattern.

Here are some of the more common IRREGULAR VERBS.

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GRAMMAR – Collocations with MAKE & DO

Collocations are words that go together naturally in English.
Learning collocations is essential for making your English sound fluent and natural!

Use DO for actions, obligations, and repetitive tasks.
Use MAKE for creating or producing something, and for actions you choose to do.

DO generally refers to the action itself, and MAKE usually refers to the result.

For example, if you make breakfast, the result is an omelet! If you make a suggestion, you have created a recommendation.
Make arrangements
Make an attempt
Make your bed
Make believe
Make a change
Make change
Make a choice
Make a comment
Make a commitment
Make a complaint
Make a decision
Make a demand
Make a difference
Make an effort
Make an exception
Make an excuse
Make an inquiry
Make a fool of yourself
Make a fortune
Make friends
Make a fuss
Make a mess

Do your nails
Do your best
Do good
Do harm
Do someone a favor
Do your chores
Do the right thing
Do things well / badly
Do something
Do your best
Do your hair
Do the dishes
Do an exercise
Do the laundry
Do the ironing
Do the shopping
Do your work
Do (your) homework
Do housework
Do your job
Do business
Do your hair

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GRAMMAR – Adverbs of frequency

Adverbs of frequency describe how often something occurs

100% – always – I always come to work on time.
~90% – usually – I usually wake up before 7 am.
~80% – normally – I normally have breakfast at home.
~80% – generally – I generally walk to work.
~70% – often – I often have lunch near my office.
~70% – frequently – I frequently meet friends for lunch.
~50% – sometimes – I sometimes take a break in the afternoon.
~30% – occasionally – I occasionally go for a beer after work.
~10% – seldom – I seldom stay out late.
~5% – rarely – I rarely drink whiskey.
~5% – hardly ever – I go out without my phone.
0% – never – I am never late to class.

Placement of adverbs of frequency
BEFORE the main verb (but NOT the verb BE).
I always study in the library when I have an exam.
I never arrive late for class.
AFTER the verb BE.
I am always tired after tennis.
She is never late for class.

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By is often used with forms of communication and transportation:
by car, by plane, by phone, by express mail (‘Note: If the noun is plural or is preceded by a determiner, the preposition in or on must be used: in cars, on a boat, on tbe telepbone, in a taxi.) By is also used with gerunds to show how an action happened:
How did you get an appointment with Dr. Blish? By calling his secretary.

With is used to indicate the idea of accompaniment or possession:
Melanie came to the party with her friend.
He wanted a house with a garage.

Without indicates the opposite relationship:
Melanie came to the party without her friend.
He bought a house without a garage.

With also indicates that an instrument was used to perform an action:
He opened the door with
a key.
Without indicates the opposite relationship:
He opened the door without a key.
By and for are also used in the following expressions:
by chance; by far; by hand.
for example; for free; for now

for is sometimes used to show purpose; it means “to get.”
She went to the store for toothpaste and shampoo

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GRAMMAR – Comparing Things

To compare two things, we use what is called a COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE to what is different between the two things. We do this by modifying the adjective of the characteristic that is different. Here are the rules for this:
For adjectives of one syllable:
You add ‘ER’
smart – smartER
young – youngER
fast – fastER

For adjectives of one syllable that end with Consonant-Vowel-Consonant (C-V-C):
You double the last consonant and add ‘ER’
wet = wetter
big = bigger
sad = sadder

For adjectives of two syllables that end with a Y
You remove the Y and add ‘IER’
pretty – prettIER
happy – happIER
lucky – luckIER

For adjectives with two or more syllables (not ending in Y)
You add MORE before the adjective.
famous – MORE famous
interesting – MORE interesting
careful – MORE careful

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GRAMMAR – Pronouns (and adjectives)

In linguistics, a subject pronoun is a personal pronoun that is used as the subject of a verb.

A possessive pronoun helps to show possession or ownership in a sentence.It refers back to a noun or noun phrase already used, replacing it to avoid repetition.

An object pronoun is a type of personal pronoun that is normally used as a grammatical object, either as the direct or indirect object of a verb, or as the object of a preposition. These pronouns always take the objective case, whether they are indirect object pronouns or direct object pronouns.

A possessive adjective is an adjective that is used to show ownership. It comes before a noun in the sentence and lets us know to whom the noun belongs. … Remember, possessive pronouns are used to replace the noun. Possessive adjectives are used to describe the noun.

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Adjectives are words that describe the quality or state of being of nouns. Adjectives do not modify verbs, adverbs, or other adjectives. Usually, adjectives are easy to find because they come immediately before the nouns they modify.

Adjectives can do more than just modify nouns. They can also act as a complement to linking verbs or the verb to be. A linking verb is a verb like feel, seem, or taste that describes a state of being or a sensory experience.

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