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Nouns are often called “naming” words. Every sentence must have at least one noun or pronoun. Most nouns can be either singular or plural, and can be divided into two main groups: common and proper nouns.

Common Nouns

Common nouns are used to describe everyday objects, animals, places, people and ideas. They only have a capital letter when they appear at the start of a sentence.

Examples: cake, dog, woman, piece, book

Abstract Nouns

Abstract nouns are a type of common noun and are used to describe ideas, feelings, time things that cannot be touched.

Examples: morning, love, sadness, peace, trust

Collective Nouns

Collective nouns are a type of common noun and refer to a group of things or people. They are usually singular words that represent a collection of things.

Examples: a crowd of people, a pack of dogs, a flight of stairs, a herd of cows

Proper Nouns

A proper noun is the name given to a particular person, place, animal, and religion. Proper nouns always start with a capital letter.

Examples: John, Sally, Mr., Mrs. Sir, Friday, May, Koran, Catholic

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Irregular Plural Nouns

Some nouns DON’T follow the rules. For example, many nouns that end in -o are made plural by adding an -s, but others need an -es. Some nouns completely change their spelling when they become plural and other don’t change at all. Words that originate from Latin or Greek often have irregular endings. We must …

Regular Plural Nouns

The most common way to make a noun plural is to add s or es to the end of the singular form. Most nouns take the ending -s, except for those ending in -s, -z, -sh, -ch or -ss, which take the suffix (ending) -es. Some nouns are given different plural endings to make them easier …