Adjectives are words used to describe a person, place, or thing, for example, The tall man in the red shirt is a friend of mine. We drove along a quiet road until reaching a small town. I’m reading an interesting book. Prepositions are words used to connect two ideas or to demonstrate the relationship between two concepts. Examples of prepositions in English include at, in, on, for, to, with, and from.
Adjective + Preposition Combinations There are many cases in which adjectives are combined with prepositions – but there is no rule stating when to use which combination. As you read and listen to more English, you will become more and more familiar with how these adjective-prepositions combinations are used. Here are a few of the more common combinations of adjectives and prepositions in English.
Adjectives are words used to describe a person, place, or thing. For example:
The tall man in the red shirt is a friend of mine. We drove along a quiet road until we reached a small town. I’m reading an interesting book.
Prepositions are words used to connect two ideas or to demonstrate the relationship between two concepts. Examples of prepositions in English include at, in, on, for, to, with, and from.
Adjective + Preposition Combinations
There are many cases in which adjectives are combined with prepositions – but there is no rule stating when to use which combination. As you read and listen to more English, you will become more and more familiar with how these adjective-prepositions combinations are used. Here are a few of the more common combinations of adjectives and prepositions in English.
We use BETWEEN … AND to show when something begins and ends, or the range during which something is expected to happen. – The concert will start between 9 pm and 10 pm. – I lived in NY between 1985 and 1997. – The doctor sees patients between 2 and 6 pm.
We use AFTER to refer to the time following an event or period of time. – I usually watch TV after dinner. – I moved to Brazil after living in NY. – I was able to sleep after taking the sleeping pill.
We use TO/PAST when telling the time to refer to the number of minutes before (to) or after (past) and hour. – Class starts at half past two.. – I’ve been waiting since ten to two. – The train leaves at twenty-five past eleven.
We use WITHIN to refer to a span of time during which something will occur. – The package should arrive within a week. – We will have the results within minutes. – You will receive an answer within 24 hours.
We use FROM … TO to show when something begins and ends. – The class will be from 2 pm to 4 pm. – She was sick from Tuesday to Friday. – The course runs from January to May.
We use AGO to say how much time before now that something happened. – I started studying English three months ago. – I moved to Brazil 17 years ago. – The last election was almost three years ago.
We use BEFORE to refer to a period of time preceding a particular event, date, or time. – I usually wake up before 6:30 on weekedays. – I had read the book before I saw the movie. – The game is on before the News.
We use BY to say that something will happen no later than a time or date. – Students must hand in their homework by Friday. – I will be back by six o’clock.. – The rain should stop by the weekend.
WHILE is a CONJUNCTION that is used to refer to a background period of time in which another activity happened. It is very similar to during, but it is followed by a sentence (while + subject + verb…), so they are not interchangeable.
DURING is a PREPOSITION that is used before an activity to indicate that a parallel action is happening at the same time as that activity. DURING is followed by a noun, which often represents an activity (during + noun)
Examples: I will finish reading the book while I’m on my summer break. (while + subject + verb…) I usually take notes while I’m in class. Did you fall asleep while you were watching the movie?
To use during in the above sentences, we have to change the structure of the sentence.
Examples: I will finish reading the book during my summer break.(during + noun) I usually take notes during class. Did you fall asleep during the movie?
We use hear for sounds that come to our ears, without us necessarily trying to hear them! For example, ‘They heard a strange noise in the middle of the night.’ Listen is used to describe paying attention to sounds that are going on. For example, ‘Last night, I listened to my new Post Malone CD.’
So, you can hear something without wanting to, but you can only listen to something intentionally. An imaginary conversation between a couple might go: ‘Did you hear what I just said? ‘No, sorry, darling, I wasn’t listening.’
Some clauses begin with the introductory words THERE or IT rather than with the subject of the sentence. These introductory words are sometimes called expletives. The expletive THERE shows that someone or something exists, usually at a particular time or place. These sentences generally follow the pattern there + verb to be + subject:
There are many skyscrapers in New York City. There was a good movie on television last night.
The expletive IT is used in a number of different situations and patterns:
It is important to be punctual for appointments. (with the verb to be + adjective + infinitive)
It was in 1959 that Alaska became a state. (with the verb to be + adverbial + noun clause)
It takes a long time to learn a language. (with the verb to take + time phrase + infinitive)
It was David who did most of the work. (with the verb to be + noun + relative clause)
An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
Here are some of the more common ones:
Mr. – Mister Mrs. – Missus Ms. – Miss [mizz] jr. – Junior Dr. – Doctor Blvd. – Boulevard Rd. – Road Dr. – Drive St. – Street Ave. – Avenue Ln. – Lane mph – miles per hour Corp. – Corporation Inc. – Incorporated Ltd. – Limited
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