although – though – even though – despite – in spite of
When we want to say something positive and something negative in the same sentence, we can use one of the following forms:
Although (though – less formal) and even though have exactly the same meaning and have exactly the same grammatical construction.
although / even though + subject + verb + subject + verb
- Although (though) she is poor, she is happy.
- Although (though) they played well, they lost the game.
- Even though she was tired, she went out.
- Even though he eats a lot, he is not overweight.
In spite of and despite have exactly the same meaning and have exactly the same grammatical construction.
despite / in spite of + -ing form + subject + verb
- Despite being poor, she is happy.
- Despite playing well, they lost the game.
- In spite of being tired, she went out.
- In spite of eating a lot, he is not overweight.
This form is less common but possible:
despite / in spite of + noun (phrase) + subject + verb
subject + verb + despite / in spite of + noun (phrase)
- We enjoyed our camping holiday in spite of the rain. (in spite of + noun)
- In spite of her tiredness, she went out. (in spite of + noun phrase)
- Despite the pain in his leg he completed the marathon. (despite + noun)
- Despite having all the qualifications, they didn’t offer me the job. (despite + noun phrase)
Though is more informal and we use it more in conversation than written English.
- I’m poor. I’m happy though.
- They lost. They played well though.
- She was tired. She went out though.
- He’s thin. He eats a lot though.