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Conjunctions

although – though – even though – despite – in spite of

conjunctions-0-consessionWhen we want to say something positive and something negative in the same sentence, we can use one of the following forms:

Although (though – less formal) and even though have exactly the same meaning and have exactly the same grammatical construction.

although / even though         +          subject                        +          verb     +          subject + verb

  • Although (though) she is poor, she is happy.
  • Although (though) they played well, they lost the game.
  • Even though she was tired, she went out.
  • Even though he eats a lot, he is not overweight.

 

In spite of and despite have exactly the same meaning and have exactly the same grammatical construction.

despite / in spite of    +          -ing form        +          subject + verb

  • Despite being poor, she is happy.
  • Despite playing well, they lost the game.
  • In spite of being tired, she went out.
  • In spite of eating a lot, he is not overweight.

This form is less common but possible:

despite / in spite of + noun (phrase) + subject + verb
or
subject + verb + despite / in spite of + noun  (phrase)

  • We enjoyed our camping holiday in spite of the rain. (in spite of + noun)
  • In spite of her tiredness, she went out. (in spite of + noun phrase)
  • Despite the pain in his leg he completed the marathon. (despite + noun)
  • Despite having all the qualifications, they didn’t offer me the job. (despite + noun phrase)

Though is more informal and we use it more in conversation than written English.

  • I’m poor. I’m happy though.
  • They lost. They played well though.
  • She was tired. She went out though.
  • He’s thin. He eats a lot though.

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